(1) The Okefenokee is a prospective UNESCO World Heritage Site and place of ancestral significance to the Muscogee (Creek) Nation.
(2) United States, National Oceanic and Atmospheric Organization National Centers for Environmental Information, State of the Climate: Drought for Annual 2017 (Washington, D.C.: NOAA, 2018), https://www.ncdc.noaa.gov/sotc/.
(3) Cynthia S. Loftin, Margaret Q. Guyette, and Paul R. Wetzel, “Evaluation of Vegetation-Fire Dynamics in the Okefenokee National Wildlife Refuge, Georgia, USA, with Bayesian Belief Networks,” Wetlands 38, (2018): 821.
(4) Neal E. Flanagan, et al., “Low-Severity Fire as a Mechanism of Organic Matter Protection in Global Peatlands: Thermal Alteration Slows Decomposition,” Global Change Biology 26, no. 7 (2020): 1-17.
(5) T.R. Muraleedharan, Miroslav Radojevic, Allan Waugh, and Anthony Caruana, “Emissions from the Combustion of Peat, An Experimental Study,” Atmosphere and Environment 34, no. 18 (2000): 3033-3035.
(6) Guillermo Rein, “Smoldering-Peat Megafires: The Largest Fires on Earth,” in Coal and Peat Fires: a Global Perspective, ed. Glenn B. Stracher, Anupma Prakash, and Guillermo Rein (Amsterdam: Elsevier Science, 2010), 1-11.
(7) Cynthia S. Loftin, Margaret Q. Guyette, and Paul R. Wetzel, “Evaluation of Vegetation-Fire Dynamics,” 830.
(9) Z. C. Yu, “Northern Peatland Carbon Stocks and Dynamics: A Review,” Biogeosciences 9, no. 10 (2012): 4071-4085.
(10) James Holden, "Peatland Hydrology and Carbon Release: Why Small-scale Process Matters," Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society 263 (2005): 2892.
(11) Heavy metals in peat are also mobilized by erosion and runoff, and sea-level rise. Lead and other industrial particulates are entering rivers of the U.K.’s Pennines due to eroding peatland in the Lake District—and higher summer temperatures and stormier winters may continue driving the trend. Marshes in New York’s Jamaica Bay are losing mineral sediment because of urbanization and sea-level rise, and heavy metals threaten to escape.
(12) Joji Abraham, Kim Dowling, and Singarayer Florentine, “Risk Of Post-fire Metal Mobilization Into Surface Water Resources: A Review,” Science of the Total Environment 599-600 (2017): 1740-1755.
(13) Bagie M. George and Darold Batzer, "Spatial and Temporal Variations of Mercury Levels in Okefenokee Invertebrates: Southeast Georgia," Environmental Pollution 152, no. 2 (2008): 484-490.
(14) Brian P. Jackson, Parley V Winger, and Peter J Lasier, "Atmospheric Lead Deposition to Okefenokee Swamp, Georgia, USA," Environmental Pollution 130, no. 3 (2004): 445-451.
(15) Greg R. Masson and Mark D. Bowers, “Mercury and Lead Levels in Fish of the Okefenokee National Wildlife Refuge,” U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service, (1995): 2-6.
(16) Heikki Simola and Martin Lodefiius, “Recent Increase In Mercury Sedimentation In A Forest Lake Attributable To Peatland Drainage,” Bulletin of Environmental Contamination and Toxicology 29, no. 3 (1982): 298–305.
(17) Regional models project the Southeast will see an increase in average temperature throughout the remainder of the 21st century, resulting in higher evapotranspiration and increased drought risk. See this factsheet: https://www.climatehubs.usda.gov/sites/default/files/droughtfactsheet_r8_022018_508_0.pdf.
(18) Willie Jamaal Wright, "The Morphology of Marronage," Annals of the American Association of Geographers 110, no. 4 (2020): 1139.
(19) The Great Dismal—part National Wildlife Refuge (112,000 acres), part State Park (16,000 acres)—has 50,000 acres of inflowing watersheds and is the site of the headwaters of five coastal rivers: the Nansemond, Elizabeth, Northwest, Pasquotank, and Perquimans. The Suffolk Scarp to the side of the Great Dismal marks the shoreline 125,000 years ago while the Trail Ridge is the equivalent down south.
(20) William Byrd and E. G Swem, Description Of The Dismal Swamp And A Proposal To Drain The Swamp. (Metuchen: C.F. Heartman, 1922), from https://www.loc.gov/item/22022884/.
(22) When faced with forced removals, some Tuscarora remained in the Alligator River Swamp, and some Creeks who stayed in the Southeast met at the swamps of South Georgia. Muscogee (Creek) even translates to “Dwellers in the Swamp”. Seminoles lived in the Okefenokee into at least the 19th century. See dissertation for further detail.
(23) Washington is also believed to have sponsored investigations of the Okefenokee.
(24) L. Eric Hinesley, “Research at N.C. State University Related to Regeneration of Atlantic White Cedar (AWC) and Baldcypress,” (Raleigh: N. C. State University, 2002.)
(25) Miriam Jones, Debra A. Willard, Kristen Hoefke, Frederic C. Wuster, and Karen Balentine, "Quantifying Peat Carbon Loss From Centuries Of Drainage in the Great Dismal Swamp, USA" (paper presented at the AGU Fall Meeting 2020, 1-17 December 2020), https://agu.confex.com/agu/fm20/meetingapp.cgi/Paper/680759.
(26) United States, U.S. Department of the Interior Fish and Wildlife Service, Southeast Region, Okefenokee National Wildlife Refuge Comprehensive Conservation Plan, (Atlanta: U.S. Department of the Interior Fish and Wildlife Service, 2006), https://www.fws.gov/southeast/planning/PDFdocuments/OkefenokeeFinalCCP/Okefenokee%20Final%20CCP%20edited%20.pdf.
(28) Robert A. Mickler, David P. Welch, and Andrew D. Bailey, “Carbon Emissions During Wildland Fire on a North American Temperate Peatland,” Fire Ecology 13, no. 1 (2017): 34-57.
(29) Marjorie G. Winkler and Calvin B. DeWitt, "Environmental Impacts of Peat Mining in the United States: Documentation for Wetland Conservation," Environmental Conservation 12, no. 4 (1985): 317-330.
(30) United States, U.S. Department of the Interior Fish and Wildlife Service, Southeast Region, Okefenokee National Wildlife Refuge Comprehensive Conservation Plan.
(31) “Executive Order 13817 of December 20, 2017, A Federal Strategy To Ensure Secure and Reliable Supplies of Critical Minerals,” Code of Federal Regulations, title 3 (2017): 60835, https://www.govinfo.gov/content/pkg/FR-2017-12-26/pdf/2017-27899.pdf.
(32) Bradley S. Van Gosen, Titanium Mineral Resources In Heavy-Mineral Sands In The Atlantic Coastal Plain Of The Southeastern United States (Reston: USGS, 2018), 8.
(33) “Earth MRI Funds Critical Minerals Projects in Twenty-One States,” U.S. Geological Service, accessed December 1, 2020, https://www.usgs.gov/news/earth-mri-funds-critical-minerals-projects-twenty-one-states-0?qt-news_science_products=4#qt-news_science_products.
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(35) Bradley S. Van Gosen, Titanium Mineral Resources In Heavy-Mineral Sands In The Atlantic Coastal Plain Of The Southeastern United States, 13.
(36) “Global Titanium Dioxide Market Report 2019-2020 & 2030,” Yahoo! Finance, November 11, 2020, https://finance.yahoo.com/news/global-titanium-dioxide-market-report-095300880.html?guccounter=1.
(37) GreenLaw, “Public Outcry Against Proposed Mine Continues to Grow, Mining Company Withdraws Permit Application,” News release, (August 27, 2014).
(38) United States, U.S. Army Corps of Engineers, Regulatory Division, Joint Public Notice: Application SAS-2013-00561 (Savannah: U.S. Army Corps of Engineers, 2010), https://www.sas.usace.army.mil/Portals/61/docs/Regulatory/publicnotices/SAS-2013-00561-Wayne-0712%20(RLS).pdf?ver=5YO3kNgC6ndAgEMz51XPcg%3D%3D.
(39) United States, U.S. Army Corps of Engineers, Regulatory Division, Joint Public Notice: Application SAS-2018-00554 (Savannah: U.S. Army Corps of Engineers, 2018), https://www.sas.usace.army.mil/Portals/61/docs/SAS-2018-00554-Charlton-0413-HAR%20.pdf?ver=yj52HLmipjoV1NIL3BcMAg%3d%3d.
(40) “Mining Near The Okefenokee,” Georgia Conservancy, accessed December 1, 2020, https://www.georgiaconservancy.org/okefenokee/mining.
(41) One interviewee informed me that TPM had been operating a mine with Chemours in Starke, FL that just shut down: “They were going back through the mine tailings to get what was left. As far as I know, they're still under a consent order for permit violations there. They wanted to finish up in Starke and then move everything up to St George. That's why they were pushing, pushing, pushing, pushing to get this through.”
(42) Mary Landers, “Business Giant near Okefenokee Refuge Fights Back against Planned Mining,” Florida Times-Union, September 21, 2020, https://www.jacksonville.com/story/news/environment/2020/09/21/business-giant-near-okefenokee-refuge-fights-back-against-planned-mining/5854473002/.
(43) For example, the proposed PolyMet copper-nickel mine in northeastern Minnesota’s Iron Range moved forward in 2020 after a decade of fighting on the part of tribal communities and environmental groups over damage to wetlands.
(44) Rebecca C. Rooney, Suzanne E. Bayley, and David W. Schindler, “Oil sands mining and reclamation cause massive loss of peatland and stored carbon,” PNAS 109, no. 13 (2012): 4933-4937.
(45) The Southern Environmental Law Center, Comment Letter on Permit Application No. SAS-2018-00554 (September 12, 2019), https://www.southernenvironment.org/uploads/words_docs/Twin_Pines_-_Comments_-_FINAL.pdf.
(47) “Southern Ionics Minerals Is Part of The Chemours Company,” The Chemours Company, accessed December 1, 2020, https://www.chemours.com/en/about-chemours/global-reach/southern-ionics-minerals.
(48) United States, U.S. Army Corps of Engineers, Regulatory Division, Joint Public Notice: Application SAS-2012-01042 (Savannah: U.S. Army Corps of Engineers, 2015), https://www.sas.usace.army.mil/Portals/61/Users/251/87/1787/20151222-SAS-2012-01042-Charlton-20160121-JML.pdf?ver=mJ-T5WUghyqz9lzpgoVxzg%3D%3D.
(49) United States, U.S. Geological Survey, Geologic Evolution of Trail Ridge Eolian Heavy-Mineral Sand and Underlying Peat, Northern Florida, Eric Force and Fredrick J. Rich. U.S. Geological Survey Professional Paper 1499, (Washington, D.C.: United States Government Printing Office, 1989), https://doi.org/10.3133/pp1499.
(50) Email message to author, November 20, 2020.
(51) Federal Register, “The Navigable Waters Protection Rule: Definition of ‘Waters of the United States,’” April 21, 2020. https://www.federalregister.gov/documents/2020/04/21/2020-02500/the-navigable-waters-protection-rule-definition-of-waters-of-the-united-states.
(52) Researchers have expanded upon the NHD using Lidar, but building Lidar-derived digital elevation models requires care since bridges, roads, and other structures act as virtual dams (“digital dams”), impeding terrain analysis algorithms from routing the flow of water in a model.
(53) United States, U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, Overview of the Navigable Waters Protection Rule, (Washington, D.C., U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, 2020), https://www.epa.gov/sites/production/files/2020-01/documents/nwpr_fact_sheet_-_overview.pdf.
(54) Bagie M George and Darold Batzer, "Spatial and Temporal Variations of Mercury Levels in Okefenokee Invertebrates: Southeast Georgia," 484-490.
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(56) Susannah Kitchens and Todd C. Rasmussen, "Hydraulic Evidence for Vertical Flow From Okefenokee Swamp to the Underlying Floridian Aquifer in Southeast Georgia," 1995.
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(70) Miriam C. Jones, “Vegetation and Carbon Storage Changes Following >200 Years of Drainage in a Temperate Peat Swamp” (forthcoming).
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(73) Researcher in discussion with the author, July 2020.
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